On the disclination nature of pentagonal pyramids with high growth steps of electrolytic origin


Functional materials based on base metals, which have a defect structure and developed surface are of a big scientific and practical interest due to their unusual physical and chemical properties. These materials can be used as catalytically active, sorbing and filtering elements, for example, in systems of catalytic waste water treatment or in a low-temperature catalysis of production of chemical agents. In this work, copper defective structures with a developed surface were produced by electrodeposition method with mechanical activation of the cathode and crystals growing on the cathode. Abrasive particles of Al and Si oxides moving in electrolyte were used as the activator. Such an activation leads to a formation of various crystal lattice defects including high-energy disclination type defects in crystals in the course of their growth. The activation promotes the formation of non-equilibrium, fragmented structures anda a developed surface of material. It was found that activation of the cathode allows for growing of pentagonal pyramids with high growth steps in large quantities. The paper presents the experimental results on a relaxation of internal elastic stress fields associated with disclination type defects in these pentagonal pyramids. In these pyramids, it is possible to observe the same channels of relaxation of internal elastic stress fields, which previously have been observed only in planar pentagonal microcrystals obtained at low overvoltage and without a mechanical activation of the cathode surface. This paper considers possible mechanisms of the formation of pentagonal pyramids, where one of the five sectors is missing, or splitting of the top of pyramids is observed.

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