Section of Structure design and analysis




LPBF of multiple sieved powder of Co-28 wt.% Cr-6 wt.% Mo leads to the formation of samples with inclusions of Cr and Mo within the bulk.
Increasing the duration of annealing post-treatment leads to the initiation of diffusion processes, which, in its turn, leads to the gradual dissolution of Cr and Mo inclusiuons

Influence of thermal treatment duration on structure and phase composition of additive Co-Cr-Mo alloy samples

LPBF of multiple sieved powder of Co-28 wt.% Cr-6 wt.% Mo leads to the formation of samples with inclusions of Cr and Mo within the bulk. Increasing the duration of annealing post-treatment leads to the initiation of diffusion processes, which, in its turn, leads to the gradual dissolution of Cr and Mo inclusiuons
M.A. Khimich, E.A. Ibragimov, A.I. Tolmachev, V.V. Chebodaeva, P.V. Uvarkin, N.A. Saprykina, A.A. Saprykin, Y.P. Sharkeev
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 1 Pages: 43-48
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

Superplastic forming of Ti-6Al-4V commercial sheet with non-homogeneous initial microstructure (d=0.3-25 micrometers) at rather low temperature of 700C with a constant argon gas pressure of 2.5 MPa was performed for the first time.
Superplastic forming of Ti-6Al-4V sheet at 700C led to an improvement of microstructure homogeneity and randomization of the rolling texture.

Microstructure of commercial sheet out of Ti-6Al-4V alloy after superplastic forming at 700°C

Superplastic forming of Ti-6Al-4V commercial sheet with non-homogeneous initial microstructure (d=0.3-25 micrometers) at rather low temperature of 700C with a constant argon gas pressure of 2.5 MPa was performed for the first time. Superplastic forming of Ti-6Al-4V sheet at 700C led to an improvement of microstructure homogeneity and randomization of the rolling texture.
M.R. Shagiev, M.A. Murzinova
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 4s Pages: 553-556
Journal section: Structure design and analysis



The paper investigates the effect of long-term operation at a temperature of 515 °C on the structure and properties of steel grade 08Cr16Ni11Mo3. As a result of the study, it was found that during operation at a temperature of 515 °C for 195,000 hours in steel grade 08Cr16Ni11Mo3, the structure changes with the formation of secondary phases, initiated by the release of elements with limited solubility from the supersaturated solid solution. A change in the phase composition during heat aging leads to embrittlement of steel - a decrease in plasticity.

Study of the influence of long-term high-temperature operation on the structure and properties of austenitic chromium-nickel-molybdenum steel

The paper investigates the effect of long-term operation at a temperature of 515 °C on the structure and properties of steel grade 08Cr16Ni11Mo3. As a result of the study, it was found that during operation at a temperature of 515 °C for 195,000 hours in steel grade 08Cr16Ni11Mo3, the structure changes with the formation of secondary phases, initiated by the release of elements with limited solubility from the supersaturated solid solution. A change in the phase composition during heat aging leads to embrittlement of steel - a decrease in plasticity.
K.A. Okhapkin, A.S. Kudryavtsev
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 1 Pages: 21-26
Journal section: Structure design and analysis



It was found that the electric pulse treatment of cryorolled cooper leads to the development of recovery processes and continuous static recrystallization, provides a transition from in-situ recrystallization to grain growth, which leads to a sharp decrease in hardness.

Structue and strength of fine-grain copper after cryorolling and single electrо-pulsing of different capacity

It was found that the electric pulse treatment of cryorolled cooper leads to the development of recovery processes and continuous static recrystallization, provides a transition from in-situ recrystallization to grain growth, which leads to a sharp decrease in hardness.
M.V. Markushev, R.R. Ilyasov, S.V. Krymskiy, I.S. Valeev, O.S. Sitdikov
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 4 Pages: 491-496
Journal section: Structure design and analysis


The dependence of the vibration response of the conductor on the action of an electric pulse as an interference of damped oscillations of the acceleration value generated at the leading and trailing edges of the electric pulse when the duration of the Timp of the electric pulse changes.

Electroplastic effect and interaction of an electrical impulse with a conductor

The dependence of the vibration response of the conductor on the action of an electric pulse as an interference of damped oscillations of the acceleration value generated at the leading and trailing edges of the electric pulse when the duration of the Timp of the electric pulse changes.
O.B. Skvortsov, V.I. Stashenko, O.A. Troitsky
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 4 Pages: 473-478
Journal section: Structure design and analysis


In the microstructure of ZrO2 based composites, both undivided, entangled bundles/aggregates of SWCNTs and individual nanotubes are observed, which together form a continuous reinforcing structure, which leads to a refinement of the grain size of the composites.

Single-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced composites based on ZrO2 obtained by vacuum pressureless sintering

In the microstructure of ZrO2 based composites, both undivided, entangled bundles/aggregates of SWCNTs and individual nanotubes are observed, which together form a continuous reinforcing structure, which leads to a refinement of the grain size of the composites.
A.A. Leonov, E.V. Abdulmenova, M.A. Rudmin, J. Li
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 4 Pages: 452-456
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

The phase transformation of the t → m type determines the inelastic stage of deformation of ceramics based on zirconium dioxide stabilized by additives of yttrium oxide. The maximum deflection force of the cantilevers of a two-cantilever specimen with a chevron notch, tested by wedging, determines the critical characteristics of the crack resistance of ceramics ZrO2 + 3mol% Y2O3: the rate of energy release Gc during crack propagation (specific energy of destruction) and the stress intensity factor KIc. The maximum viscosity is characteristic of ceramics with the composition ZrO2 + 3mol%Y2O3, the deviation from which reduces the fracture toughness. The increase in fracture toughness is favored by the grinding of the powder in a planetary mill.

Influence of nanopowder sintering technology on crack resistance of tetragonal zirconium dioxide

The phase transformation of the t → m type determines the inelastic stage of deformation of ceramics based on zirconium dioxide stabilized by additives of yttrium oxide. The maximum deflection force of the cantilevers of a two-cantilever specimen with a chevron notch, tested by wedging, determines the critical characteristics of the crack resistance of ceramics ZrO2 + 3mol% Y2O3: the rate of energy release Gc during crack propagation (specific energy of destruction) and the stress intensity factor KIc. The maximum viscosity is characteristic of ceramics with the composition ZrO2 + 3mol%Y2O3, the deviation from which reduces the fracture toughness. The increase in fracture toughness is favored by the grinding of the powder in a planetary mill.
E.E. Deryugin, N.A. Narkevich, I.A. Danilenko, G.V. Lasko, S. Schmauder
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 4 Pages: 409-415
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

Under shock-wave loading at a speed of 471 m / s at 20 °C, a phase hammer hardening of austenite is observed as a result of cyclic γ → ε → γ transformation, which manifests in the form of an increased dislocation density (2 × 1010 cm-2) at the site of former ε-martensite crystals.

On the manifestation of reversible deformation under shock-wave loading of nitrogenous Cr-Mn-Ni austenitic steel

Under shock-wave loading at a speed of 471 m / s at 20 °C, a phase hammer hardening of austenite is observed as a result of cyclic γ → ε → γ transformation, which manifests in the form of an increased dislocation density (2 × 1010 cm-2) at the site of former ε-martensite crystals.
V.V. Sagaradze, N.V. Kataeva, I.G. Kabanova, S.V. Afanasyev, A.V. Pavlenko
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 4 Pages: 403-408
Journal section: Structure design and analysis



We studied the structure, phase composition, and mechanical properties of the FeCrMnNiCo0.85C0.15 alloy in the cast and annealed (at 1200°C, 1 h) states, as well as after multistage thermomechanical treatments, including high-temperature annealing, hot forging, and cold rolling. Thermomechanical treatments do not provide the formation of a single-phase austenitic structure, but contribute to a significant dissolution of carbides and an increase in the solid solution hardening of the austenite phase. Such alloys have significantly higher strength and ductility values in comparison with cast alloy and Cantor alloy.

Influence of thermal and thermal-mechanical treatments on microstructure and mechanical properties of the multicomponent alloy FeCrMnNiCo0.85C0.15

We studied the structure, phase composition, and mechanical properties of the FeCrMnNiCo0.85C0.15 alloy in the cast and annealed (at 1200°C, 1 h) states, as well as after multistage thermomechanical treatments, including high-temperature annealing, hot forging, and cold rolling. Thermomechanical treatments do not provide the formation of a single-phase austenitic structure, but contribute to a significant dissolution of carbides and an increase in the solid solution hardening of the austenite phase. Such alloys have significantly higher strength and ductility values in comparison with cast alloy and Cantor alloy.
E.V. Melnikov, S.V. Astafurov, K.A. Reunova, V.A. Moskvina, M.Y. Panchenko, I.A. Tumbusova, E.G. Astafurova
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 4 Pages: 375-381
Journal section: Structure design and analysis


It was found that the electric pulse of low capacity leads to the development in the cryorolled pure aluminum of recovery and continuous recrystallization without hardness changes. Under threshold energy conditions there were found transition from in-situ recrystallization to grain growth, and sharp decrease in hardness.

Influence of electric pulse treatment on structure and hardness of cryorolled aluminum

It was found that the electric pulse of low capacity leads to the development in the cryorolled pure aluminum of recovery and continuous recrystallization without hardness changes. Under threshold energy conditions there were found transition from in-situ recrystallization to grain growth, and sharp decrease in hardness.
I.S. Valeev, A.K. Valeeva, R.R. Ilyasov, E.V. Avtokratova, S.V. Krymskiy, O.S. Sitdikov, M.V. Markushev
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 3 Pages: 351-356
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

The effect of the temperature of equal-channel angular pressing ranging from 0.45 to 0.75 Tm on the processes of grain refinement in the Al-3% Cu alloy was investigated. An increase in temperature led to increasing the average size of new grains, decreasing the average misorientation of intergranular boundaries, and shifted the formation of a fine-grained structure towards the higher strains.

Influence of the temperature of equal-channel angular pressing on fine-grain structure formation in the alloy Al-3 % Cu

The effect of the temperature of equal-channel angular pressing ranging from 0.45 to 0.75 Tm on the processes of grain refinement in the Al-3% Cu alloy was investigated. An increase in temperature led to increasing the average size of new grains, decreasing the average misorientation of intergranular boundaries, and shifted the formation of a fine-grained structure towards the higher strains.
O.S. Sitdikov, E.V. Avtokratova, R.R. Zagitov, M.V. Markushev
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 3 Pages: 332-337
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

Heat treatment at 700 ° C of commercially pure grade 4 - Grade 4 titanium results in the release of β-modification nanoparticles. The deformation of the material leads to an increase in the volume fraction of particles precipitated after annealing.

Study of second phase precipitates in nanostructured commercially pure titanium

Heat treatment at 700 ° C of commercially pure grade 4 - Grade 4 titanium results in the release of β-modification nanoparticles. The deformation of the material leads to an increase in the volume fraction of particles precipitated after annealing.
L.R. Rezyapova, R.R. Valiev, V.D. Sitdikov, R.Z. Valiev
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 3 Pages: 345-350
Journal section: Structure design and analysis


Cold rolling of Fe-17Cr-13Ni-3Mo-0.01C austenitic stainless steel leads to the formation of a fragmented structure with a high density of crystal structure defects. The main deformation mechanism during rolling is dislocation slip, which is accompanied by the development of mechanical twinning as an additional mechanism contributing to structure fragmentation. Saturation with hydrogen promotes more active development of twinning and the occurrence of the γ → ε phase transformation, and an increase in the current density upon saturation of the samples with hydrogen before rolling and a decrease in the deformation temperature is accompanied by an increase in the density of twin boundaries and the density of dislocations.

Effect of electrolytic hydrogen saturation on deformation mechanisms of Fe-17Cr-13Ni-3Mo-0.01C austenitic stainless steel during cold rolling

Cold rolling of Fe-17Cr-13Ni-3Mo-0.01C austenitic stainless steel leads to the formation of a fragmented structure with a high density of crystal structure defects. The main deformation mechanism during rolling is dislocation slip, which is accompanied by the development of mechanical twinning as an additional mechanism contributing to structure fragmentation. Saturation with hydrogen promotes more active development of twinning and the occurrence of the γ → ε phase transformation, and an increase in the current density upon saturation of the samples with hydrogen before rolling and a decrease in the deformation temperature is accompanied by an increase in the density of twin boundaries and the density of dislocations.
E.V. Melnikov, M.Y. Panchenko, K.A. Reunova, E.G. Astafurova
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 3 Pages: 285-290
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

The nonmonotonic change in the properties of the alloy of the Cu-Cr-Zr system under SPD conditions is due to the peculiarity of the kinetics of precipitation-dissolution of particles of the second phases and the formation of a solid solution. This process is caused not only by diffusion but also by an additional SPD factor, which promotes particle size reduction.

Unusual kinetics of strain-induced diffusional phase transformations in Cu-Cr-Zr alloy

The nonmonotonic change in the properties of the alloy of the Cu-Cr-Zr system under SPD conditions is due to the peculiarity of the kinetics of precipitation-dissolution of particles of the second phases and the formation of a solid solution. This process is caused not only by diffusion but also by an additional SPD factor, which promotes particle size reduction.
S.N. Faizova, D.A. Aksenov, I.A. Faizov, K.S. Nazarov
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 2 Pages: 218-222
Journal section: Structure design and analysis


The structural-phase state and durometric characteristics of hypersonic metallization coatings made of falsely alloys "Fe-Al" in the initial state and after heat treatment was investigated. The heat treatment consisted in heating the coating samples to temperatures of 570, 620, 720, 820 and 920 °C, followed by holding for 5, 10 and 20 minutes and air cooling.

High-temperature heat treatment of hypersonic metallization coatings from pseudoalloy “Fe-Al”

The structural-phase state and durometric characteristics of hypersonic metallization coatings made of falsely alloys "Fe-Al" in the initial state and after heat treatment was investigated. The heat treatment consisted in heating the coating samples to temperatures of 570, 620, 720, 820 and 920 °C, followed by holding for 5, 10 and 20 minutes and air cooling.
A.N. Grigorchik, E.V. Astrashab, V.A. Kukareko, M.A. Belotserkovsky, A.V. Sosnovsky
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 2 Pages: 198-203
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

The coating structure obtained by electrospark treatment of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V in a mixture of titanium granules and tungsten carbide powder is represented by accumulations of WC particles in a titanium matrix. The WC accumulations were formed as a result of the ingress of large agglomerates of tungsten carbide powder particles into the discharge region.

Electrospark deposition of tungsten carbide powder on titanium alloy Ti6Al4V

The coating structure obtained by electrospark treatment of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V in a mixture of titanium granules and tungsten carbide powder is represented by accumulations of WC particles in a titanium matrix. The WC accumulations were formed as a result of the ingress of large agglomerates of tungsten carbide powder particles into the discharge region.
A.A. Burkov, M.A. Kulik, V.O. Krutikova
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 2 Pages: 175-180
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

The reproduced exothermic effect in the temperature range 487-653K and endothermic at 1269K (1285K) for CaCu3-3хNi3хTi4O12(CaCu3Ti4-4хNi4хO12-δ) are observed on the DSC curves of the synthesized samples of both series, associated with thermal dissociation of CuO impurities.

Thermal behavior of Ni-doped CaCu3Ti4O12 ceramics

The reproduced exothermic effect in the temperature range 487-653K and endothermic at 1269K (1285K) for CaCu3-3хNi3хTi4O12(CaCu3Ti4-4хNi4хO12-δ) are observed on the DSC curves of the synthesized samples of both series, associated with thermal dissociation of CuO impurities.
N.A. Zhuk, V.A. Belyy, E.U. Ipatova, T.K. Rocheva, I.V. Gruzdev, M.M. Ignatova
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 2 Pages: 164-169
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

Corrosion-aggressive environment (sea water) repeatedly (from 2.5 to 9.5 times) reduces the durability of ropes. The lubricants L8 and L7 provided maximum rope endurance in normal conditions, but in seawater exposure trials showed the worst results.

Influence of the lubricant on the endurance of steel ropes operating in corrosive environments

Corrosion-aggressive environment (sea water) repeatedly (from 2.5 to 9.5 times) reduces the durability of ropes. The lubricants L8 and L7 provided maximum rope endurance in normal conditions, but in seawater exposure trials showed the worst results.
V.Y. Sholom, O.L. Kramer, V.P. Golovin, O.P. Kornilova, A.N. Abramov, R.F. Vagapov
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 2 Pages: 125-128
Journal section: Structure design and analysis





The degradation processes occurring in massive inclusions of the chromium-nickel cast iron carbide phase during deformation at high temperatures (400-600 ºС) are studied. The effect of the local deformations on easy slip of dislocations is considered. We also demonstrate that during the dislocation slip, the new phases appear and the energy dissipates.

Features of the carbide phase degradation under heating and deformation

The degradation processes occurring in massive inclusions of the chromium-nickel cast iron carbide phase during deformation at high temperatures (400-600 ºС) are studied. The effect of the local deformations on easy slip of dislocations is considered. We also demonstrate that during the dislocation slip, the new phases appear and the energy dissipates.
T.S. Skoblo, O.Y. Klochko, V.N. Romanchenko, E.L. Belkin
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 1 Pages: 22-27
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

Polymer сomposites with a concentration of 20 wt. % polyethylene and 80 wt. % iron exhibit extrinsic piezoresistance of about 30% in the pressure range of 0–170 kPa

Elasto-elastic composite materials with a polymer matrix based on ultrafine iron and polyethylene

Polymer сomposites with a concentration of 20 wt. % polyethylene and 80 wt. % iron exhibit extrinsic piezoresistance of about 30% in the pressure range of 0–170 kPa
Y.V. Kabirov, E.N. Sidorenko, N.V. Prutsakova, M.V. Belokobylsky, A.O. Letovaltsev, E.V. Chebanova, E.B. Rusakova
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 1 Pages: 17-21
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

Nanoscale precipitates of aluminides of transition metals and the main strengthening phase are one of key factors controlling nanostructuring the Al alloy 1965 during SPD and its mechanical properties.

Influence of preliminary heat treatment on structure and strength of high-strength aluminum alloy subjected to high pressure torsion with various strains

Nanoscale precipitates of aluminides of transition metals and the main strengthening phase are one of key factors controlling nanostructuring the Al alloy 1965 during SPD and its mechanical properties.
M.V. Markushev, E.V. Avtokratova, Y.L. Burdastykh, S.V. Krimsky, O.S. Sitdikov
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Year: 2020 Volume: 10     Issue: 4 Pages: 517-522
Journal section: Structure design and analysis


Microstructure of Sn-Si-O film according to HRTEM. Silicon-doped tin dioxide films (Sn-Si-O) were produced by RF reactive ion-beam sputtering of a composite metal tin target in a controlled atmosphere of argon and oxygen.

Influence of silicon impurity on the structure and physical properties of Sn-Si-O films

Microstructure of Sn-Si-O film according to HRTEM. Silicon-doped tin dioxide films (Sn-Si-O) were produced by RF reactive ion-beam sputtering of a composite metal tin target in a controlled atmosphere of argon and oxygen.
S.I. Rembeza, N.N. Kosheleva, E.S. Rembeza, T.V. Svistova, A.A. Vinokurov
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Year: 2020 Volume: 10     Issue: 4 Pages: 469-474
Journal section: Structure design and analysis


Using atomic force microscopy, the surface topology of steel 1.0481 with a stitch structure was studied and its roughness and waviness were measured. An analysis of the results showed that a surface with a stitching structure is more developed and has higher values of fractal dimension than the homogeneous structure of troost-martensite.

Study of the lineage structure of building steel by atomic force microscopy

Using atomic force microscopy, the surface topology of steel 1.0481 with a stitch structure was studied and its roughness and waviness were measured. An analysis of the results showed that a surface with a stitching structure is more developed and has higher values of fractal dimension than the homogeneous structure of troost-martensite.
V.V. Duka, L.P. Aref`eva, V.N. Pustovoit, D.A. Kiseleva
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Year: 2020 Volume: 10     Issue: 4 Pages: 445-450
Journal section: Structure design and analysis


The structure of the3D frame-bridge NiTi sample produced by wire arc additive manufacturing is more complex than the structure of the simple “walls”.

Structure of a 3D frame-bridge NiTi sample deposited on a low carbon steel substrate by wire arc additive manufacturing

The structure of the3D frame-bridge NiTi sample produced by wire arc additive manufacturing is more complex than the structure of the simple “walls”.
N.N. Resnina, I.A. Palani, P.S. Liulchak, S.P. Belyaev, S.S. Mani Prabu, S. Jayachandran, V.D. Kalganov
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Year: 2020 Volume: 10     Issue: 4 Pages: 496-500
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

Monolithic and defect-free samples of the Al-Nb hybrid system aluminomatrix composite at the various deformation conditions and the initial dimensions of the disk were processed by HPT. The greatest refinement of the structural components and the formation of the metal matrix structure, which led to a maximum level of microhardness HV ~ 300, took place  when the number of revolutions of the anvil was 30 and the strain rate was 2 rpm.

On the possibility of applying severe plastic deformation by high pressure torsion for the manufacture of Al-Nb metal matrix composites

Monolithic and defect-free samples of the Al-Nb hybrid system aluminomatrix composite at the various deformation conditions and the initial dimensions of the disk were processed by HPT. The greatest refinement of the structural components and the formation of the metal matrix structure, which led to a maximum level of microhardness HV ~ 300, took place when the number of revolutions of the anvil was 30 and the strain rate was 2 rpm.
G.R. Khalikova, G.F. Korznikova, K.S. Nazarov, R.K. Khisamov, S.N. Sergeev, R.U. Shayakhmetov, R.R. Mulyukov
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Year: 2020 Volume: 10     Issue: 4 Pages: 475-480
Journal section: Structure design and analysis




-A combined technology for deposition of protective coatings on a heat-resistant nickel alloy Inconel 718, combining methods of electro-spark deposition and magnetron sputtering, is proposed.
-Double-layer MS-ESA MoSiB/ZrSiB and CrAlSiB/ZrSiB coatings  increase the oxidation resistance of the nickel alloy, respectively, by 12 and 40 times.

Improving the oxidation resistance of Inconel 718 high-temperature nickel alloy using combined surface engineering technology

-A combined technology for deposition of protective coatings on a heat-resistant nickel alloy Inconel 718, combining methods of electro-spark deposition and magnetron sputtering, is proposed. -Double-layer MS-ESA MoSiB/ZrSiB and CrAlSiB/ZrSiB coatings increase the oxidation resistance of the nickel alloy, respectively, by 12 and 40 times.
P.V. Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, A.E. Kudryashov, A.N. Sheveyko, A.S. Orekhov, E.A. Levashov
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Year: 2020 Volume: 10     Issue: 4 Pages: 371-376
Journal section: Structure design and analysis
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