Section of Structure design and analysis

Friction stir processing mode (ω = 2000 rpm, ν = 8 mm/min) and hardening T6 heat treatment were developed, which makes it possible to achieve the formation of a monolithic defect-free structure in the AK12D (Al–12.8Si–1.67Cu–1.03Ni–0.84Mg–0.33Mn–0.23Co–0.24Fe) alloy with a high level of mechanical properties.

Surface hardening of an Al-Si-Cu-Ni-Mg aluminum alloy by friction stir processing and T6 heat treatment

Friction stir processing mode (ω = 2000 rpm, ν = 8 mm/min) and hardening T6 heat treatment were developed, which makes it possible to achieve the formation of a monolithic defect-free structure in the AK12D (Al–12.8Si–1.67Cu–1.03Ni–0.84Mg–0.33Mn–0.23Co–0.24Fe) alloy with a high level of mechanical properties.
G.R. Khalikova, G.R. Zakirova, A.I. Farkhutdinov, E.A. Korznikova, V.G. Trifonov
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 3 Pages: 255-260
Journal section: Structure design and analysis


The mechanism of formation of the cellular crystallization structure consists in the occurrence of combined thermocapillary,
concentration-capillary, evaporative-capillary and thermoelectric instability

Modeling the mechanism of micro / nanostructured surface formation in Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Ni and Co-Cr-Fe-Mn-Ni high-entropy alloys treated with a high current pulsed electron beam

The mechanism of formation of the cellular crystallization structure consists in the occurrence of combined thermocapillary, concentration-capillary, evaporative-capillary and thermoelectric instability
S.A. Nevskii, V.D. Sarychev, S.V. Konovalov, K.A. Osintsev, Y.F. Ivanov, I.A. Panchenko, V.E. Gromov
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 3 Pages: 249-254
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

The energy dispersive analysis showed an increase in the chromium concentration in the coating with an increase in the chromium oxide content in the electrode materials. With an increase in the concentration of Cr2O3 in the coatings, the friction coefficient and wear rate were decreased.

Formation of electric spark WC-Co coatings with modifying Cr2O3 additives

The energy dispersive analysis showed an increase in the chromium concentration in the coating with an increase in the chromium oxide content in the electrode materials. With an increase in the concentration of Cr2O3 in the coatings, the friction coefficient and wear rate were decreased.
A.A. Burkov, L.A. Konevtsov, V.K. Khe
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 3 Pages: 237-242
Journal section: Structure design and analysis


The structure of a sample obtained by consolidation of four sheets of CP Ti was examined. It was shown that the quality of bonding between the sheets decreases from the bottom to the top and the formation of a joint of satisfactory quality was accompanied by a change in the microtexture, weak grain growth and the formation of a subgrain structure.

Microstructure of a titanium sample produced by ultrasonic consolidation

The structure of a sample obtained by consolidation of four sheets of CP Ti was examined. It was shown that the quality of bonding between the sheets decreases from the bottom to the top and the formation of a joint of satisfactory quality was accompanied by a change in the microtexture, weak grain growth and the formation of a subgrain structure.
A.A. Mukhametgalina, M.A. Murzinova, A.A. Nazarov
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 2 Pages: 153-157
Journal section: Structure design and analysis



CrxAl(Si)yC with a thickness of 3800 nm was deposited by PVD technique
Al is chemical bonded with silicon, Si – with carbon and aluminum.
Melting and crystallization of Al-Si system reduce the coating protective properties

Structure and corrosion behaviour of CrxAl(Si)yC coatings fabricated by the vacuum arc discharge technique

CrxAl(Si)yC with a thickness of 3800 nm was deposited by PVD technique Al is chemical bonded with silicon, Si – with carbon and aluminum. Melting and crystallization of Al-Si system reduce the coating protective properties
A.P. Rubshtein, A.B. Vladimirov, S.A. Plotnikov, V.B. Vykhodets, T.E. Kurennykh
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 2 Pages: 121-125
Journal section: Structure design and analysis



(a) Scheme of an arbitrary pole of the sample surface (the edge of every round disc is made up of atoms at the step edges and atoms at the edge): A, C – atoms in the step edge; B – atom in the center of the plane (half of atoms bonds are broken); D – separately placed atom at the edge of the plane (has one non broken bond). 
(b) Field ion image of the disordered state of the alloy Fe25Pd50Au25. The statistical arrangement of atoms in the crystal lattice shows a chaotic contrast of the surface image.
(c) Field ion image of the ordered state of Fe25Pd50Au25 alloy. Fe and Au atoms provide contrast in the field ion image, Pd atoms do not provide contrast.

A study of the distribution of Au atoms in the LI2 superstructure of the Fe25Pd50Au25 alloy using field ion microscopy

(a) Scheme of an arbitrary pole of the sample surface (the edge of every round disc is made up of atoms at the step edges and atoms at the edge): A, C – atoms in the step edge; B – atom in the center of the plane (half of atoms bonds are broken); D – separately placed atom at the edge of the plane (has one non broken bond). (b) Field ion image of the disordered state of the alloy Fe25Pd50Au25. The statistical arrangement of atoms in the crystal lattice shows a chaotic contrast of the surface image. (c) Field ion image of the ordered state of Fe25Pd50Au25 alloy. Fe and Au atoms provide contrast in the field ion image, Pd atoms do not provide contrast.
V.A. Ivchenko
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 2 Pages: 100-105
Journal section: Structure design and analysis




LPBF of multiple sieved powder of Co-28 wt.% Cr-6 wt.% Mo leads to the formation of samples with inclusions of Cr and Mo within the bulk.
Increasing the duration of annealing post-treatment leads to the initiation of diffusion processes, which, in its turn, leads to the gradual dissolution of Cr and Mo inclusiuons

Influence of thermal treatment duration on structure and phase composition of additive Co-Cr-Mo alloy samples

LPBF of multiple sieved powder of Co-28 wt.% Cr-6 wt.% Mo leads to the formation of samples with inclusions of Cr and Mo within the bulk. Increasing the duration of annealing post-treatment leads to the initiation of diffusion processes, which, in its turn, leads to the gradual dissolution of Cr and Mo inclusiuons
M.A. Khimich, E.A. Ibragimov, A.I. Tolmachev, V.V. Chebodaeva, P.V. Uvarkin, N.A. Saprykina, A.A. Saprykin, Y.P. Sharkeev
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 1 Pages: 43-48
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

Superplastic forming of Ti-6Al-4V commercial sheet with non-homogeneous initial microstructure (d=0.3-25 micrometers) at rather low temperature of 700C with a constant argon gas pressure of 2.5 MPa was performed for the first time.
Superplastic forming of Ti-6Al-4V sheet at 700C led to an improvement of microstructure homogeneity and randomization of the rolling texture.

Microstructure of commercial sheet out of Ti-6Al-4V alloy after superplastic forming at 700°C

Superplastic forming of Ti-6Al-4V commercial sheet with non-homogeneous initial microstructure (d=0.3-25 micrometers) at rather low temperature of 700C with a constant argon gas pressure of 2.5 MPa was performed for the first time. Superplastic forming of Ti-6Al-4V sheet at 700C led to an improvement of microstructure homogeneity and randomization of the rolling texture.
M.R. Shagiev, M.A. Murzinova
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 4s Pages: 553-556
Journal section: Structure design and analysis



The paper investigates the effect of long-term operation at a temperature of 515 °C on the structure and properties of steel grade 08Cr16Ni11Mo3. As a result of the study, it was found that during operation at a temperature of 515 °C for 195,000 hours in steel grade 08Cr16Ni11Mo3, the structure changes with the formation of secondary phases, initiated by the release of elements with limited solubility from the supersaturated solid solution. A change in the phase composition during heat aging leads to embrittlement of steel - a decrease in plasticity.

Study of the influence of long-term high-temperature operation on the structure and properties of austenitic chromium-nickel-molybdenum steel

The paper investigates the effect of long-term operation at a temperature of 515 °C on the structure and properties of steel grade 08Cr16Ni11Mo3. As a result of the study, it was found that during operation at a temperature of 515 °C for 195,000 hours in steel grade 08Cr16Ni11Mo3, the structure changes with the formation of secondary phases, initiated by the release of elements with limited solubility from the supersaturated solid solution. A change in the phase composition during heat aging leads to embrittlement of steel - a decrease in plasticity.
K.A. Okhapkin, A.S. Kudryavtsev
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 1 Pages: 21-26
Journal section: Structure design and analysis



It was found that the electric pulse treatment of cryorolled cooper leads to the development of recovery processes and continuous static recrystallization, provides a transition from in-situ recrystallization to grain growth, which leads to a sharp decrease in hardness.

Structue and strength of fine-grain copper after cryorolling and single electrо-pulsing of different capacity

It was found that the electric pulse treatment of cryorolled cooper leads to the development of recovery processes and continuous static recrystallization, provides a transition from in-situ recrystallization to grain growth, which leads to a sharp decrease in hardness.
M.V. Markushev, R.R. Ilyasov, S.V. Krymskiy, I.S. Valeev, O.S. Sitdikov
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 4 Pages: 491-496
Journal section: Structure design and analysis


The dependence of the vibration response of the conductor on the action of an electric pulse as an interference of damped oscillations of the acceleration value generated at the leading and trailing edges of the electric pulse when the duration of the Timp of the electric pulse changes.

Electroplastic effect and interaction of an electrical impulse with a conductor

The dependence of the vibration response of the conductor on the action of an electric pulse as an interference of damped oscillations of the acceleration value generated at the leading and trailing edges of the electric pulse when the duration of the Timp of the electric pulse changes.
O.B. Skvortsov, V.I. Stashenko, O.A. Troitsky
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 4 Pages: 473-478
Journal section: Structure design and analysis


In the microstructure of ZrO2 based composites, both undivided, entangled bundles/aggregates of SWCNTs and individual nanotubes are observed, which together form a continuous reinforcing structure, which leads to a refinement of the grain size of the composites.

Single-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced composites based on ZrO2 obtained by vacuum pressureless sintering

In the microstructure of ZrO2 based composites, both undivided, entangled bundles/aggregates of SWCNTs and individual nanotubes are observed, which together form a continuous reinforcing structure, which leads to a refinement of the grain size of the composites.
A.A. Leonov, E.V. Abdulmenova, M.A. Rudmin, J. Li
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 4 Pages: 452-456
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

The phase transformation of the t → m type determines the inelastic stage of deformation of ceramics based on zirconium dioxide stabilized by additives of yttrium oxide. The maximum deflection force of the cantilevers of a two-cantilever specimen with a chevron notch, tested by wedging, determines the critical characteristics of the crack resistance of ceramics ZrO2 + 3mol% Y2O3: the rate of energy release Gc during crack propagation (specific energy of destruction) and the stress intensity factor KIc. The maximum viscosity is characteristic of ceramics with the composition ZrO2 + 3mol%Y2O3, the deviation from which reduces the fracture toughness. The increase in fracture toughness is favored by the grinding of the powder in a planetary mill.

Influence of nanopowder sintering technology on crack resistance of tetragonal zirconium dioxide

The phase transformation of the t → m type determines the inelastic stage of deformation of ceramics based on zirconium dioxide stabilized by additives of yttrium oxide. The maximum deflection force of the cantilevers of a two-cantilever specimen with a chevron notch, tested by wedging, determines the critical characteristics of the crack resistance of ceramics ZrO2 + 3mol% Y2O3: the rate of energy release Gc during crack propagation (specific energy of destruction) and the stress intensity factor KIc. The maximum viscosity is characteristic of ceramics with the composition ZrO2 + 3mol%Y2O3, the deviation from which reduces the fracture toughness. The increase in fracture toughness is favored by the grinding of the powder in a planetary mill.
E.E. Deryugin, N.A. Narkevich, I.A. Danilenko, G.V. Lasko, S. Schmauder
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 4 Pages: 409-415
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

Under shock-wave loading at a speed of 471 m / s at 20 °C, a phase hammer hardening of austenite is observed as a result of cyclic γ → ε → γ transformation, which manifests in the form of an increased dislocation density (2 × 1010 cm-2) at the site of former ε-martensite crystals.

On the manifestation of reversible deformation under shock-wave loading of nitrogenous Cr-Mn-Ni austenitic steel

Under shock-wave loading at a speed of 471 m / s at 20 °C, a phase hammer hardening of austenite is observed as a result of cyclic γ → ε → γ transformation, which manifests in the form of an increased dislocation density (2 × 1010 cm-2) at the site of former ε-martensite crystals.
V.V. Sagaradze, N.V. Kataeva, I.G. Kabanova, S.V. Afanasyev, A.V. Pavlenko
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 4 Pages: 403-408
Journal section: Structure design and analysis



We studied the structure, phase composition, and mechanical properties of the FeCrMnNiCo0.85C0.15 alloy in the cast and annealed (at 1200°C, 1 h) states, as well as after multistage thermomechanical treatments, including high-temperature annealing, hot forging, and cold rolling. Thermomechanical treatments do not provide the formation of a single-phase austenitic structure, but contribute to a significant dissolution of carbides and an increase in the solid solution hardening of the austenite phase. Such alloys have significantly higher strength and ductility values in comparison with cast alloy and Cantor alloy.

Influence of thermal and thermal-mechanical treatments on microstructure and mechanical properties of the multicomponent alloy FeCrMnNiCo0.85C0.15

We studied the structure, phase composition, and mechanical properties of the FeCrMnNiCo0.85C0.15 alloy in the cast and annealed (at 1200°C, 1 h) states, as well as after multistage thermomechanical treatments, including high-temperature annealing, hot forging, and cold rolling. Thermomechanical treatments do not provide the formation of a single-phase austenitic structure, but contribute to a significant dissolution of carbides and an increase in the solid solution hardening of the austenite phase. Such alloys have significantly higher strength and ductility values in comparison with cast alloy and Cantor alloy.
E.V. Melnikov, S.V. Astafurov, K.A. Reunova, V.A. Moskvina, M.Y. Panchenko, I.A. Tumbusova, E.G. Astafurova
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 4 Pages: 375-381
Journal section: Structure design and analysis


It was found that the electric pulse of low capacity leads to the development in the cryorolled pure aluminum of recovery and continuous recrystallization without hardness changes. Under threshold energy conditions there were found transition from in-situ recrystallization to grain growth, and sharp decrease in hardness.

Influence of electric pulse treatment on structure and hardness of cryorolled aluminum

It was found that the electric pulse of low capacity leads to the development in the cryorolled pure aluminum of recovery and continuous recrystallization without hardness changes. Under threshold energy conditions there were found transition from in-situ recrystallization to grain growth, and sharp decrease in hardness.
I.S. Valeev, A.K. Valeeva, R.R. Ilyasov, E.V. Avtokratova, S.V. Krymskiy, O.S. Sitdikov, M.V. Markushev
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 3 Pages: 351-356
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

The effect of the temperature of equal-channel angular pressing ranging from 0.45 to 0.75 Tm on the processes of grain refinement in the Al-3% Cu alloy was investigated. An increase in temperature led to increasing the average size of new grains, decreasing the average misorientation of intergranular boundaries, and shifted the formation of a fine-grained structure towards the higher strains.

Influence of the temperature of equal-channel angular pressing on fine-grain structure formation in the alloy Al-3 % Cu

The effect of the temperature of equal-channel angular pressing ranging from 0.45 to 0.75 Tm on the processes of grain refinement in the Al-3% Cu alloy was investigated. An increase in temperature led to increasing the average size of new grains, decreasing the average misorientation of intergranular boundaries, and shifted the formation of a fine-grained structure towards the higher strains.
O.S. Sitdikov, E.V. Avtokratova, R.R. Zagitov, M.V. Markushev
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 3 Pages: 332-337
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

Heat treatment at 700 ° C of commercially pure grade 4 - Grade 4 titanium results in the release of β-modification nanoparticles. The deformation of the material leads to an increase in the volume fraction of particles precipitated after annealing.

Study of second phase precipitates in nanostructured commercially pure titanium

Heat treatment at 700 ° C of commercially pure grade 4 - Grade 4 titanium results in the release of β-modification nanoparticles. The deformation of the material leads to an increase in the volume fraction of particles precipitated after annealing.
L.R. Rezyapova, R.R. Valiev, V.D. Sitdikov, R.Z. Valiev
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 3 Pages: 345-350
Journal section: Structure design and analysis


Cold rolling of Fe-17Cr-13Ni-3Mo-0.01C austenitic stainless steel leads to the formation of a fragmented structure with a high density of crystal structure defects. The main deformation mechanism during rolling is dislocation slip, which is accompanied by the development of mechanical twinning as an additional mechanism contributing to structure fragmentation. Saturation with hydrogen promotes more active development of twinning and the occurrence of the γ → ε phase transformation, and an increase in the current density upon saturation of the samples with hydrogen before rolling and a decrease in the deformation temperature is accompanied by an increase in the density of twin boundaries and the density of dislocations.

Effect of electrolytic hydrogen saturation on deformation mechanisms of Fe-17Cr-13Ni-3Mo-0.01C austenitic stainless steel during cold rolling

Cold rolling of Fe-17Cr-13Ni-3Mo-0.01C austenitic stainless steel leads to the formation of a fragmented structure with a high density of crystal structure defects. The main deformation mechanism during rolling is dislocation slip, which is accompanied by the development of mechanical twinning as an additional mechanism contributing to structure fragmentation. Saturation with hydrogen promotes more active development of twinning and the occurrence of the γ → ε phase transformation, and an increase in the current density upon saturation of the samples with hydrogen before rolling and a decrease in the deformation temperature is accompanied by an increase in the density of twin boundaries and the density of dislocations.
E.V. Melnikov, M.Y. Panchenko, K.A. Reunova, E.G. Astafurova
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 3 Pages: 285-290
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

The nonmonotonic change in the properties of the alloy of the Cu-Cr-Zr system under SPD conditions is due to the peculiarity of the kinetics of precipitation-dissolution of particles of the second phases and the formation of a solid solution. This process is caused not only by diffusion but also by an additional SPD factor, which promotes particle size reduction.

Unusual kinetics of strain-induced diffusional phase transformations in Cu-Cr-Zr alloy

The nonmonotonic change in the properties of the alloy of the Cu-Cr-Zr system under SPD conditions is due to the peculiarity of the kinetics of precipitation-dissolution of particles of the second phases and the formation of a solid solution. This process is caused not only by diffusion but also by an additional SPD factor, which promotes particle size reduction.
S.N. Faizova, D.A. Aksenov, I.A. Faizov, K.S. Nazarov
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 2 Pages: 218-222
Journal section: Structure design and analysis


The structural-phase state and durometric characteristics of hypersonic metallization coatings made of falsely alloys "Fe-Al" in the initial state and after heat treatment was investigated. The heat treatment consisted in heating the coating samples to temperatures of 570, 620, 720, 820 and 920 °C, followed by holding for 5, 10 and 20 minutes and air cooling.

High-temperature heat treatment of hypersonic metallization coatings from pseudoalloy “Fe-Al”

The structural-phase state and durometric characteristics of hypersonic metallization coatings made of falsely alloys "Fe-Al" in the initial state and after heat treatment was investigated. The heat treatment consisted in heating the coating samples to temperatures of 570, 620, 720, 820 and 920 °C, followed by holding for 5, 10 and 20 minutes and air cooling.
A.N. Grigorchik, E.V. Astrashab, V.A. Kukareko, M.A. Belotserkovsky, A.V. Sosnovsky
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 2 Pages: 198-203
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

The coating structure obtained by electrospark treatment of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V in a mixture of titanium granules and tungsten carbide powder is represented by accumulations of WC particles in a titanium matrix. The WC accumulations were formed as a result of the ingress of large agglomerates of tungsten carbide powder particles into the discharge region.

Electrospark deposition of tungsten carbide powder on titanium alloy Ti6Al4V

The coating structure obtained by electrospark treatment of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V in a mixture of titanium granules and tungsten carbide powder is represented by accumulations of WC particles in a titanium matrix. The WC accumulations were formed as a result of the ingress of large agglomerates of tungsten carbide powder particles into the discharge region.
A.A. Burkov, M.A. Kulik, V.O. Krutikova
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 2 Pages: 175-180
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

The reproduced exothermic effect in the temperature range 487-653K and endothermic at 1269K (1285K) for CaCu3-3хNi3хTi4O12(CaCu3Ti4-4хNi4хO12-δ) are observed on the DSC curves of the synthesized samples of both series, associated with thermal dissociation of CuO impurities.

Thermal behavior of Ni-doped CaCu3Ti4O12 ceramics

The reproduced exothermic effect in the temperature range 487-653K and endothermic at 1269K (1285K) for CaCu3-3хNi3хTi4O12(CaCu3Ti4-4хNi4хO12-δ) are observed on the DSC curves of the synthesized samples of both series, associated with thermal dissociation of CuO impurities.
N.A. Zhuk, V.A. Belyy, E.U. Ipatova, T.K. Rocheva, I.V. Gruzdev, M.M. Ignatova
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 2 Pages: 164-169
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

Corrosion-aggressive environment (sea water) repeatedly (from 2.5 to 9.5 times) reduces the durability of ropes. The lubricants L8 and L7 provided maximum rope endurance in normal conditions, but in seawater exposure trials showed the worst results.

Influence of the lubricant on the endurance of steel ropes operating in corrosive environments

Corrosion-aggressive environment (sea water) repeatedly (from 2.5 to 9.5 times) reduces the durability of ropes. The lubricants L8 and L7 provided maximum rope endurance in normal conditions, but in seawater exposure trials showed the worst results.
V.Y. Sholom, O.L. Kramer, V.P. Golovin, O.P. Kornilova, A.N. Abramov, R.F. Vagapov
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 2 Pages: 125-128
Journal section: Structure design and analysis





The degradation processes occurring in massive inclusions of the chromium-nickel cast iron carbide phase during deformation at high temperatures (400-600 ºС) are studied. The effect of the local deformations on easy slip of dislocations is considered. We also demonstrate that during the dislocation slip, the new phases appear and the energy dissipates.

Features of the carbide phase degradation under heating and deformation

The degradation processes occurring in massive inclusions of the chromium-nickel cast iron carbide phase during deformation at high temperatures (400-600 ºС) are studied. The effect of the local deformations on easy slip of dislocations is considered. We also demonstrate that during the dislocation slip, the new phases appear and the energy dissipates.
T.S. Skoblo, O.Y. Klochko, V.N. Romanchenko, E.L. Belkin
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 1 Pages: 22-27
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

Polymer сomposites with a concentration of 20 wt. % polyethylene and 80 wt. % iron exhibit extrinsic piezoresistance of about 30% in the pressure range of 0–170 kPa

Elasto-elastic composite materials with a polymer matrix based on ultrafine iron and polyethylene

Polymer сomposites with a concentration of 20 wt. % polyethylene and 80 wt. % iron exhibit extrinsic piezoresistance of about 30% in the pressure range of 0–170 kPa
Y.V. Kabirov, E.N. Sidorenko, N.V. Prutsakova, M.V. Belokobylsky, A.O. Letovaltsev, E.V. Chebanova, E.B. Rusakova
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 1 Pages: 17-21
Journal section: Structure design and analysis
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