Section of Structure design and analysis



HPT at 6 GPa pressure in the range of 0-10 rotations of pre-quenched ingot of the commercial aluminum alloy 1965 resulted in consequential transformation of well-defined dense dislocation wall/cell structure to non-equilibrium nanofragmented one and near two-fold hardenning. The alloy strengthening and/or softening during further natural aging up to 500 hrs were within 10-15% and controlled by simultaneous decomposition of the aluminum solid solution and recovery of its deformation structure.

Effect of HPT straining and further natural aging on the structure and hardness of aluminum alloy 1965 with nanosized TM aluminides

HPT at 6 GPa pressure in the range of 0-10 rotations of pre-quenched ingot of the commercial aluminum alloy 1965 resulted in consequential transformation of well-defined dense dislocation wall/cell structure to non-equilibrium nanofragmented one and near two-fold hardenning. The alloy strengthening and/or softening during further natural aging up to 500 hrs were within 10-15% and controlled by simultaneous decomposition of the aluminum solid solution and recovery of its deformation structure.
M.V. Markushev, E.V. Avtokratova, S.V. Krymskiy, V.V. Tereshkin, O.S. Sitdikov
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 4s Pages: 463-468
Journal section: Structure design and analysis



Low-heat input friction stir welding/processing of Cu-Cr-Zr alloy produces an ultrafine-grained structure reinforced with Cr and Cu5Zr nanoparticles, resulting in a hardness level of 150-190 HV1.

Realizing ultrafine grain structure of Cu-Cr-Zr alloy via friction stir welding / processing

Low-heat input friction stir welding/processing of Cu-Cr-Zr alloy produces an ultrafine-grained structure reinforced with Cr and Cu5Zr nanoparticles, resulting in a hardness level of 150-190 HV1.
N.V. Lezhnin, A.V. Makarov, E.G. Volkova, A.I. Valiullin, A.B. Kotelnikov, A.A. Vopneruk
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 4s Pages: 428-432
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

A ceramic material based on rare-earth zirconates with a pyrochloric structure, possessing phase and structural stability at 1300 °C was obtained. The use of REE oxide concentrate is promising for TBCs with thermal stability above 1200°C.

Effect of rare-earths (La, Nd, Pr) on zirconate ceramics for thermal barrier coatings

A ceramic material based on rare-earth zirconates with a pyrochloric structure, possessing phase and structural stability at 1300 °C was obtained. The use of REE oxide concentrate is promising for TBCs with thermal stability above 1200°C.
S.A. Oglezneva, S.E. Porozova, M.N. Kachenyuk, A.A. Smetkin, V.B. Kul’met’eva
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 4 Pages: 379-384
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

A cubic perovskite of complex composition Pb1/3Na1/3K1/3Ta2/3Fe1/3O3-δ (sp. gr. Pm-3m, a = 3.9767(3) Å) was synthesized for the first time by the solid-phase reaction method.

Optical and electrical properties of a new complex oxide Pb1 / 3Na1 / 3K1 / 3Ta2 / 3Fe1 / 3O3-δ with perovskite structure

A cubic perovskite of complex composition Pb1/3Na1/3K1/3Ta2/3Fe1/3O3-δ (sp. gr. Pm-3m, a = 3.9767(3) Å) was synthesized for the first time by the solid-phase reaction method.
N.A. Zhuk, A.M. Popov, R.I. Korolev, V.V. Moroz, A.A. Selyutin, A.V. Koroleva, N.A. Sekushin, B.A. Makeev
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 4 Pages: 367-372
Journal section: Structure design and analysis


The features and fracture mechanisms of reactor low-activation ferritic-martensitic steel EK-181 after high-temperature thermomechanical treatment and traditional heat treatment are revealed depending on the impact test temperature in the range from -186 to 100°C. The fracture appearance transition temperature is determined by a fractographic investigation.

Fracture features of impact samples of low-activation ferritic-martensitic steel EK-181 after high-temperature thermomechanical treatment

The features and fracture mechanisms of reactor low-activation ferritic-martensitic steel EK-181 after high-temperature thermomechanical treatment and traditional heat treatment are revealed depending on the impact test temperature in the range from -186 to 100°C. The fracture appearance transition temperature is determined by a fractographic investigation.
N.A. Polekhina, V.V. Linnik, I.Y. Litovchenko, K.V. Almaeva, V.M. Chernov, M.V. Leontieva-Smirnova
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 4s Pages: 451-456
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

The influence of warm plastic deformation by rolling at 600 and 900 °C with a total strain of e = 2 on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the reactor austenitic steel EK-164 has been studied. The resulting fragmented banded microstructure with a well-developed substructure and fine grains provides high strength properties.

Microstructure and mechanical properties of austenitic steel EK-164 after warm rolling

The influence of warm plastic deformation by rolling at 600 and 900 °C with a total strain of e = 2 on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the reactor austenitic steel EK-164 has been studied. The resulting fragmented banded microstructure with a well-developed substructure and fine grains provides high strength properties.
S.A. Akkuzin, I.Y. Litovchenko, A.V. Kim, E.N. Moskvichev, V.M. Chernov
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 4s Pages: 394-398
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

A new low-activation chromium-manganese austenitic steel for nuclear power engineering with an increased manganese content and additional alloying with strong carbide formers has been fabricated. The new steel has improved strength and ductility properties compared to known analogues.

New low-activation austenitic steel for nuclear power engineering

A new low-activation chromium-manganese austenitic steel for nuclear power engineering with an increased manganese content and additional alloying with strong carbide formers has been fabricated. The new steel has improved strength and ductility properties compared to known analogues.
I.Y. Litovchenko, S.A. Akkuzin, N.A. Polekhina, K.V. Almaeva, E.N. Moskvichev, A.V. Kim, V.V. Linnik, V.M. Chernov
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 4s Pages: 399-403
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

The single-step (low-temperature) homogenization of the Al alloy 1570C, recommended by the alloy developers, did not lead to the complete removal of chemical heterogeneity arising during crystallization. An additional high-temperature annealing step resulted in some reduction in the alloy strength, but was effective in eliminating the chemical heterogeneity of the cast structure and increasing corrosion resistance while maintaining the grain size and dispersity and coherency of the nanosized Al3(Sc,Zr) dispersoids present in the alloy.

Effect of homogenization on the structure, hardness and corrosion resistance of 1570C alloy

The single-step (low-temperature) homogenization of the Al alloy 1570C, recommended by the alloy developers, did not lead to the complete removal of chemical heterogeneity arising during crystallization. An additional high-temperature annealing step resulted in some reduction in the alloy strength, but was effective in eliminating the chemical heterogeneity of the cast structure and increasing corrosion resistance while maintaining the grain size and dispersity and coherency of the nanosized Al3(Sc,Zr) dispersoids present in the alloy.
E.V. Avtokratova, O.S. Sitdikov, R.R. Zagitov, M.V. Markushev
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 4s Pages: 388-393
Journal section: Structure design and analysis


Thermal conductivity of diamond materials in transition from monocrystals to nanostructured nanodiamond composites declines two orders down due to the change in dominating factor that contributes to the thermal resistance – phonon scattering upon inner defects is changed by domination of phonon scattering at boundaries.

Heat-conducting properties of thermobarically-sintered detonation nanodiamond

Thermal conductivity of diamond materials in transition from monocrystals to nanostructured nanodiamond composites declines two orders down due to the change in dominating factor that contributes to the thermal resistance – phonon scattering upon inner defects is changed by domination of phonon scattering at boundaries.
V.A. Plotnikov, D.G. Bogdanov, A.S. Bogdanov, A.A. Chepurov, S.V. Makarov, A.P. Yelisseyev, E.I. Zhimulev, V.G. Vins
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 4 Pages: 350-353
Journal section: Structure design and analysis



SEM images of the graphene nanofilm in the matrix of AlMgGr composite and after it dissolution in 20% HCl. Raman spectrums of the graphene nanofilms in AlMgGr composite and the graphene films obtained after dissolution of the composite in 20% HCl.

Structure formation and physical-mechanical properties of Al-Mg alloy with microadditions of graphene

SEM images of the graphene nanofilm in the matrix of AlMgGr composite and after it dissolution in 20% HCl. Raman spectrums of the graphene nanofilms in AlMgGr composite and the graphene films obtained after dissolution of the composite in 20% HCl.
I.G. Brodova, L.A. Yolshina, D.Y. Rasposienko, R.V. Muradymov, I.G. Shirinkina, S.V. Razorenov, A.N. Petrova, E.V. Shorokhov
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 4 Pages: 269-275
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

Friction stir processing mode (ω = 2000 rpm, ν = 8 mm/min) and hardening T6 heat treatment were developed, which makes it possible to achieve the formation of a monolithic defect-free structure in the AK12D (Al–12.8Si–1.67Cu–1.03Ni–0.84Mg–0.33Mn–0.23Co–0.24Fe) alloy with a high level of mechanical properties.

Surface hardening of an Al-Si-Cu-Ni-Mg aluminum alloy by friction stir processing and T6 heat treatment

Friction stir processing mode (ω = 2000 rpm, ν = 8 mm/min) and hardening T6 heat treatment were developed, which makes it possible to achieve the formation of a monolithic defect-free structure in the AK12D (Al–12.8Si–1.67Cu–1.03Ni–0.84Mg–0.33Mn–0.23Co–0.24Fe) alloy with a high level of mechanical properties.
G.R. Khalikova, G.R. Zakirova, A.I. Farkhutdinov, E.A. Korznikova, V.G. Trifonov
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 3 Pages: 255-260
Journal section: Structure design and analysis


The mechanism of formation of the cellular crystallization structure consists in the occurrence of combined thermocapillary,
concentration-capillary, evaporative-capillary and thermoelectric instability

Modeling the mechanism of micro / nanostructured surface formation in Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Ni and Co-Cr-Fe-Mn-Ni high-entropy alloys treated with a high current pulsed electron beam

The mechanism of formation of the cellular crystallization structure consists in the occurrence of combined thermocapillary, concentration-capillary, evaporative-capillary and thermoelectric instability
S.A. Nevskii, V.D. Sarychev, S.V. Konovalov, K.A. Osintsev, Y.F. Ivanov, I.A. Panchenko, V.E. Gromov
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 3 Pages: 249-254
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

The energy dispersive analysis showed an increase in the chromium concentration in the coating with an increase in the chromium oxide content in the electrode materials. With an increase in the concentration of Cr2O3 in the coatings, the friction coefficient and wear rate were decreased.

Formation of electric spark WC-Co coatings with modifying Cr2O3 additives

The energy dispersive analysis showed an increase in the chromium concentration in the coating with an increase in the chromium oxide content in the electrode materials. With an increase in the concentration of Cr2O3 in the coatings, the friction coefficient and wear rate were decreased.
A.A. Burkov, L.A. Konevtsov, V.K. Khe
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 3 Pages: 237-242
Journal section: Structure design and analysis


The structure of a sample obtained by consolidation of four sheets of CP Ti was examined. It was shown that the quality of bonding between the sheets decreases from the bottom to the top and the formation of a joint of satisfactory quality was accompanied by a change in the microtexture, weak grain growth and the formation of a subgrain structure.

Microstructure of a titanium sample produced by ultrasonic consolidation

The structure of a sample obtained by consolidation of four sheets of CP Ti was examined. It was shown that the quality of bonding between the sheets decreases from the bottom to the top and the formation of a joint of satisfactory quality was accompanied by a change in the microtexture, weak grain growth and the formation of a subgrain structure.
A.A. Mukhametgalina, M.A. Murzinova, A.A. Nazarov
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 2 Pages: 153-157
Journal section: Structure design and analysis



CrxAl(Si)yC with a thickness of 3800 nm was deposited by PVD technique
Al is chemical bonded with silicon, Si – with carbon and aluminum.
Melting and crystallization of Al-Si system reduce the coating protective properties

Structure and corrosion behaviour of CrxAl(Si)yC coatings fabricated by the vacuum arc discharge technique

CrxAl(Si)yC with a thickness of 3800 nm was deposited by PVD technique Al is chemical bonded with silicon, Si – with carbon and aluminum. Melting and crystallization of Al-Si system reduce the coating protective properties
A.P. Rubshtein, A.B. Vladimirov, S.A. Plotnikov, V.B. Vykhodets, T.E. Kurennykh
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 2 Pages: 121-125
Journal section: Structure design and analysis



(a) Scheme of an arbitrary pole of the sample surface (the edge of every round disc is made up of atoms at the step edges and atoms at the edge): A, C – atoms in the step edge; B – atom in the center of the plane (half of atoms bonds are broken); D – separately placed atom at the edge of the plane (has one non broken bond). 
(b) Field ion image of the disordered state of the alloy Fe25Pd50Au25. The statistical arrangement of atoms in the crystal lattice shows a chaotic contrast of the surface image.
(c) Field ion image of the ordered state of Fe25Pd50Au25 alloy. Fe and Au atoms provide contrast in the field ion image, Pd atoms do not provide contrast.

A study of the distribution of Au atoms in the LI2 superstructure of the Fe25Pd50Au25 alloy using field ion microscopy

(a) Scheme of an arbitrary pole of the sample surface (the edge of every round disc is made up of atoms at the step edges and atoms at the edge): A, C – atoms in the step edge; B – atom in the center of the plane (half of atoms bonds are broken); D – separately placed atom at the edge of the plane (has one non broken bond). (b) Field ion image of the disordered state of the alloy Fe25Pd50Au25. The statistical arrangement of atoms in the crystal lattice shows a chaotic contrast of the surface image. (c) Field ion image of the ordered state of Fe25Pd50Au25 alloy. Fe and Au atoms provide contrast in the field ion image, Pd atoms do not provide contrast.
V.A. Ivchenko
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 2 Pages: 100-105
Journal section: Structure design and analysis




LPBF of multiple sieved powder of Co-28 wt.% Cr-6 wt.% Mo leads to the formation of samples with inclusions of Cr and Mo within the bulk.
Increasing the duration of annealing post-treatment leads to the initiation of diffusion processes, which, in its turn, leads to the gradual dissolution of Cr and Mo inclusiuons

Influence of thermal treatment duration on structure and phase composition of additive Co-Cr-Mo alloy samples

LPBF of multiple sieved powder of Co-28 wt.% Cr-6 wt.% Mo leads to the formation of samples with inclusions of Cr and Mo within the bulk. Increasing the duration of annealing post-treatment leads to the initiation of diffusion processes, which, in its turn, leads to the gradual dissolution of Cr and Mo inclusiuons
M.A. Khimich, E.A. Ibragimov, A.I. Tolmachev, V.V. Chebodaeva, P.V. Uvarkin, N.A. Saprykina, A.A. Saprykin, Y.P. Sharkeev
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 1 Pages: 43-48
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

Superplastic forming of Ti-6Al-4V commercial sheet with non-homogeneous initial microstructure (d=0.3-25 micrometers) at rather low temperature of 700C with a constant argon gas pressure of 2.5 MPa was performed for the first time.
Superplastic forming of Ti-6Al-4V sheet at 700C led to an improvement of microstructure homogeneity and randomization of the rolling texture.

Microstructure of commercial sheet out of Ti-6Al-4V alloy after superplastic forming at 700°C

Superplastic forming of Ti-6Al-4V commercial sheet with non-homogeneous initial microstructure (d=0.3-25 micrometers) at rather low temperature of 700C with a constant argon gas pressure of 2.5 MPa was performed for the first time. Superplastic forming of Ti-6Al-4V sheet at 700C led to an improvement of microstructure homogeneity and randomization of the rolling texture.
M.R. Shagiev, M.A. Murzinova
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 4s Pages: 553-556
Journal section: Structure design and analysis



The paper investigates the effect of long-term operation at a temperature of 515 °C on the structure and properties of steel grade 08Cr16Ni11Mo3. As a result of the study, it was found that during operation at a temperature of 515 °C for 195,000 hours in steel grade 08Cr16Ni11Mo3, the structure changes with the formation of secondary phases, initiated by the release of elements with limited solubility from the supersaturated solid solution. A change in the phase composition during heat aging leads to embrittlement of steel - a decrease in plasticity.

Study of the influence of long-term high-temperature operation on the structure and properties of austenitic chromium-nickel-molybdenum steel

The paper investigates the effect of long-term operation at a temperature of 515 °C on the structure and properties of steel grade 08Cr16Ni11Mo3. As a result of the study, it was found that during operation at a temperature of 515 °C for 195,000 hours in steel grade 08Cr16Ni11Mo3, the structure changes with the formation of secondary phases, initiated by the release of elements with limited solubility from the supersaturated solid solution. A change in the phase composition during heat aging leads to embrittlement of steel - a decrease in plasticity.
K.A. Okhapkin, A.S. Kudryavtsev
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 1 Pages: 21-26
Journal section: Structure design and analysis



It was found that the electric pulse treatment of cryorolled cooper leads to the development of recovery processes and continuous static recrystallization, provides a transition from in-situ recrystallization to grain growth, which leads to a sharp decrease in hardness.

Structue and strength of fine-grain copper after cryorolling and single electrо-pulsing of different capacity

It was found that the electric pulse treatment of cryorolled cooper leads to the development of recovery processes and continuous static recrystallization, provides a transition from in-situ recrystallization to grain growth, which leads to a sharp decrease in hardness.
M.V. Markushev, R.R. Ilyasov, S.V. Krymskiy, I.S. Valeev, O.S. Sitdikov
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 4 Pages: 491-496
Journal section: Structure design and analysis


The dependence of the vibration response of the conductor on the action of an electric pulse as an interference of damped oscillations of the acceleration value generated at the leading and trailing edges of the electric pulse when the duration of the Timp of the electric pulse changes.

Electroplastic effect and interaction of an electrical impulse with a conductor

The dependence of the vibration response of the conductor on the action of an electric pulse as an interference of damped oscillations of the acceleration value generated at the leading and trailing edges of the electric pulse when the duration of the Timp of the electric pulse changes.
O.B. Skvortsov, V.I. Stashenko, O.A. Troitsky
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 4 Pages: 473-478
Journal section: Structure design and analysis


In the microstructure of ZrO2 based composites, both undivided, entangled bundles/aggregates of SWCNTs and individual nanotubes are observed, which together form a continuous reinforcing structure, which leads to a refinement of the grain size of the composites.

Single-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced composites based on ZrO2 obtained by vacuum pressureless sintering

In the microstructure of ZrO2 based composites, both undivided, entangled bundles/aggregates of SWCNTs and individual nanotubes are observed, which together form a continuous reinforcing structure, which leads to a refinement of the grain size of the composites.
A.A. Leonov, E.V. Abdulmenova, M.A. Rudmin, J. Li
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 4 Pages: 452-456
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

The phase transformation of the t → m type determines the inelastic stage of deformation of ceramics based on zirconium dioxide stabilized by additives of yttrium oxide. The maximum deflection force of the cantilevers of a two-cantilever specimen with a chevron notch, tested by wedging, determines the critical characteristics of the crack resistance of ceramics ZrO2 + 3mol% Y2O3: the rate of energy release Gc during crack propagation (specific energy of destruction) and the stress intensity factor KIc. The maximum viscosity is characteristic of ceramics with the composition ZrO2 + 3mol%Y2O3, the deviation from which reduces the fracture toughness. The increase in fracture toughness is favored by the grinding of the powder in a planetary mill.

Influence of nanopowder sintering technology on crack resistance of tetragonal zirconium dioxide

The phase transformation of the t → m type determines the inelastic stage of deformation of ceramics based on zirconium dioxide stabilized by additives of yttrium oxide. The maximum deflection force of the cantilevers of a two-cantilever specimen with a chevron notch, tested by wedging, determines the critical characteristics of the crack resistance of ceramics ZrO2 + 3mol% Y2O3: the rate of energy release Gc during crack propagation (specific energy of destruction) and the stress intensity factor KIc. The maximum viscosity is characteristic of ceramics with the composition ZrO2 + 3mol%Y2O3, the deviation from which reduces the fracture toughness. The increase in fracture toughness is favored by the grinding of the powder in a planetary mill.
E.E. Deryugin, N.A. Narkevich, I.A. Danilenko, G.V. Lasko, S. Schmauder
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 4 Pages: 409-415
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

Under shock-wave loading at a speed of 471 m / s at 20 °C, a phase hammer hardening of austenite is observed as a result of cyclic γ → ε → γ transformation, which manifests in the form of an increased dislocation density (2 × 1010 cm-2) at the site of former ε-martensite crystals.

On the manifestation of reversible deformation under shock-wave loading of nitrogenous Cr-Mn-Ni austenitic steel

Under shock-wave loading at a speed of 471 m / s at 20 °C, a phase hammer hardening of austenite is observed as a result of cyclic γ → ε → γ transformation, which manifests in the form of an increased dislocation density (2 × 1010 cm-2) at the site of former ε-martensite crystals.
V.V. Sagaradze, N.V. Kataeva, I.G. Kabanova, S.V. Afanasyev, A.V. Pavlenko
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 4 Pages: 403-408
Journal section: Structure design and analysis



We studied the structure, phase composition, and mechanical properties of the FeCrMnNiCo0.85C0.15 alloy in the cast and annealed (at 1200°C, 1 h) states, as well as after multistage thermomechanical treatments, including high-temperature annealing, hot forging, and cold rolling. Thermomechanical treatments do not provide the formation of a single-phase austenitic structure, but contribute to a significant dissolution of carbides and an increase in the solid solution hardening of the austenite phase. Such alloys have significantly higher strength and ductility values in comparison with cast alloy and Cantor alloy.

Influence of thermal and thermal-mechanical treatments on microstructure and mechanical properties of the multicomponent alloy FeCrMnNiCo0.85C0.15

We studied the structure, phase composition, and mechanical properties of the FeCrMnNiCo0.85C0.15 alloy in the cast and annealed (at 1200°C, 1 h) states, as well as after multistage thermomechanical treatments, including high-temperature annealing, hot forging, and cold rolling. Thermomechanical treatments do not provide the formation of a single-phase austenitic structure, but contribute to a significant dissolution of carbides and an increase in the solid solution hardening of the austenite phase. Such alloys have significantly higher strength and ductility values in comparison with cast alloy and Cantor alloy.
E.V. Melnikov, S.V. Astafurov, K.A. Reunova, V.A. Moskvina, M.Y. Panchenko, I.A. Tumbusova, E.G. Astafurova
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Year: 2021 Volume: 11     Issue: 4 Pages: 375-381
Journal section: Structure design and analysis
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