Section of Structure design and analysis

The paper describes the two-stage modification of the surface layer of  Al-20%Si alloy that combines electroexplosive alloying by an Al-Y2O3 system with subsequent irradiation by pulsed electron beam. Study of the structure and properties of the modified layers of the material under study by the methods of modern physical materials science.

Study of the structure and properties of Al-Si alloy irradiated by electron-ion-plasma

The paper describes the two-stage modification of the surface layer of Al-20%Si alloy that combines electroexplosive alloying by an Al-Y2O3 system with subsequent irradiation by pulsed electron beam. Study of the structure and properties of the modified layers of the material under study by the methods of modern physical materials science.
Y.A. Shliarova, V.V. Shlyarov, D.V. Zaguliaev, Y.F. Ivanov, V.E. Gromov
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Year: 2023 Volume: 13     Issue: 3 Pages: 219-224
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

The effects of heat input magnitude and adjustment on microstructure and mechanical characteristics of Al-5%Si and Al-12%Si alloys prepared using electron bean wire feed (EBAM ) and wire-arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) have been investigated.

Microstructural evolution of electron beam and wire-arc additively manufactured hypoeutectic and eutectic silumins

The effects of heat input magnitude and adjustment on microstructure and mechanical characteristics of Al-5%Si and Al-12%Si alloys prepared using electron bean wire feed (EBAM ) and wire-arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) have been investigated.
A.P. Zykova, A.R. Dobrovolsky, V.M. Semenchuk, A.V. Nikolaeva, V.R. Utyaganova, S.Yu. Nikonov, A.V. Chumaevskii, S.Yu. Tarasov
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Year: 2023 Volume: 13     Issue: 3 Pages: 197-203
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

As cast Al-1.8Mn-1.6Cu-0.15Cr-0.15Fe (wt. %) alloy structure consist of aluminum solid solution, eutectic Al6(FeMn) and Al2Cu, as well as Al7Cr and Al20Cu2Mn3 dispersive particles. Radial shear rolling results in partial dissolution of Al20Cu2Mn3 dispersoids, grain refinement to the size of 1.6 μm, increasing yield stress up to 83 MPa and ultimate strength up to 216 MPa. The plasticity of the deformed alloy is 25%.

Structure and strength of Al-Mn-Cu-Zr-Cr-Fe ALTEC alloy after radial-shear rolling

As cast Al-1.8Mn-1.6Cu-0.15Cr-0.15Fe (wt. %) alloy structure consist of aluminum solid solution, eutectic Al6(FeMn) and Al2Cu, as well as Al7Cr and Al20Cu2Mn3 dispersive particles. Radial shear rolling results in partial dissolution of Al20Cu2Mn3 dispersoids, grain refinement to the size of 1.6 μm, increasing yield stress up to 83 MPa and ultimate strength up to 216 MPa. The plasticity of the deformed alloy is 25%.
A.N. Petrova, D.Y. Rasposienko, V.V. Astafyev, A.O. Yakovleva
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Year: 2023 Volume: 13     Issue: 2 Pages: 177-182
Journal section: Structure design and analysis




The structure and properties of AISI 321 steel depends on the level of normal load on the indenter during frictional treatment. Friction treatment with a sliding indenter leads to the formation of a gradient structure with a depth of up to 500 µm.

Evolution of the structure and physical-mechanical properties of metastable steel after surface frictional treatment with varying loading on the indenter

The structure and properties of AISI 321 steel depends on the level of normal load on the indenter during frictional treatment. Friction treatment with a sliding indenter leads to the formation of a gradient structure with a depth of up to 500 µm.
E.A. Putilova, L.S. Goruleva, S.M. Zadvorkin, P.A. Skorynina, R.A. Savrai, K.D. Krucheva
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Year: 2023 Volume: 13     Issue: 3 Pages: 191-196
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

The effect of combination of isothermal cryorolling at liquid nitrogen temperature to strains ranging from 30 to 90% and subsequent high-dense electropulsing, on the structure and hardness of an initially coarse-grained pure nickel was studied.

Effect of high-dense electropulsing with different energies on the structure and strength of nickel cryorolled to different strains

The effect of combination of isothermal cryorolling at liquid nitrogen temperature to strains ranging from 30 to 90% and subsequent high-dense electropulsing, on the structure and hardness of an initially coarse-grained pure nickel was studied.
M.V. Markushev, I.S. Valeev, E.V. Avtokratova, R.R. Ilyasov, A.K. Valeeva, S.V. Krimsky, O.S. Sitdikov
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Year: 2023 Volume: 13     Issue: 2 Pages: 126-131
Journal section: Structure design and analysis



Established that at the increase of the mass fraction of carbon from 0.09% to 0.30% in the as-cast metal, the metal hardness increases. At the same time, the structural-phase composition consists of a pseudo-pearlitic structure (ferrite-nitride mixture) and austenitic structure in different ratios since an increase in the carbon content leads to an increase in the amount of the pseudo-pearlite. The heat treatment of specimens with the mass fraction of carbon of 0.09% and 0.30% at 1250 °C for two hours leads to their complete austenization. In this case, the hardness of steels of both compositions decreases to 22 – 24 HRC (0.09 wt.% of carbon) and to 28 – 30 HRC (0.30 wt.% of carbon).

Influence of carbon on the structural-phase composition and hardness of steel ingots of the Fe-Cr-Mo-N-C system obtained by the SHS method under nitrogen pressure

Established that at the increase of the mass fraction of carbon from 0.09% to 0.30% in the as-cast metal, the metal hardness increases. At the same time, the structural-phase composition consists of a pseudo-pearlitic structure (ferrite-nitride mixture) and austenitic structure in different ratios since an increase in the carbon content leads to an increase in the amount of the pseudo-pearlite. The heat treatment of specimens with the mass fraction of carbon of 0.09% and 0.30% at 1250 °C for two hours leads to their complete austenization. In this case, the hardness of steels of both compositions decreases to 22 – 24 HRC (0.09 wt.% of carbon) and to 28 – 30 HRC (0.30 wt.% of carbon).
M.S. Konovalov, V.I. Lad’yanov, M.I. Mokrushina, V.A. Karev
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Year: 2023 Volume: 13     Issue: 1 Pages: 85-89
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

It is shown that with an increase in temperature, load, and holding time, the volume fraction of pores decreases, and the fraction of fiber increases, which leads to an increase in the composite strength. In all cases, the shape of the fracture surface indicates the brittle nature of the composite fracture.

Investigation of the effect of compacting mode parameters of a carbon-aluminum wire preform on the strength of the produced compact

It is shown that with an increase in temperature, load, and holding time, the volume fraction of pores decreases, and the fraction of fiber increases, which leads to an increase in the composite strength. In all cases, the shape of the fracture surface indicates the brittle nature of the composite fracture.
B.I. Atanov, S.N. Galyshev, N.G. Zaripov, U.S. Shayakhmetov, A.R. Khamidullin
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Year: 2023 Volume: 13     Issue: 2 Pages: 115-120
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

The value of the nitrogen compositional stability coefficient has been determined for the alloys of the Fe-Cr-Mn-Mo-N system obtained by self-propagating synthesis, namely, aluminothermy under nitrogen pressure. The obtained results permit to predict the maximum possible content of nitrogen in continuous ingots (without bubbles and gas porosity in the volume) and, consequently, the structural-phase composition of alloy and optimal regimes of alloying.

On the coefficient of compositional stability of nitrogen for high-nitrogen alloys of the Fe-Cr-Mn-Mo-N system, obtained by the SHS method under nitrogen pressure

The value of the nitrogen compositional stability coefficient has been determined for the alloys of the Fe-Cr-Mn-Mo-N system obtained by self-propagating synthesis, namely, aluminothermy under nitrogen pressure. The obtained results permit to predict the maximum possible content of nitrogen in continuous ingots (without bubbles and gas porosity in the volume) and, consequently, the structural-phase composition of alloy and optimal regimes of alloying.
M.S. Konovalov, V.I. Lad’yanov, M.I. Mokrushina, V.A. Karev
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Year: 2023 Volume: 13     Issue: 2 Pages: 121-125
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

Images of samples obtained at a temperature of +5 ° demonstrate a completely different morphology in comparison with samples obtained at +25°, demonstrate a completely different morphology in comparison with samples
EDX elemental mapping indicated that the particles contain mainly Cu and O in both samples.

Effect of synthesis temperature on the formation of nickel-copper composite nanoparticles

Images of samples obtained at a temperature of +5 ° demonstrate a completely different morphology in comparison with samples obtained at +25°, demonstrate a completely different morphology in comparison with samples EDX elemental mapping indicated that the particles contain mainly Cu and O in both samples.
I.Yu. Isaeva, G.Yu. Ostaeva, E.A. Eliseeva, A. L. Golovin, A. L. Vasiliev
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Year: 2023 Volume: 13     Issue: 2 Pages: 149-152
Journal section: Structure design and analysis




HPT at 6 GPa pressure in the range of 0-10 rotations of pre-quenched ingot of the commercial aluminum alloy 1965 resulted in consequential transformation of well-defined dense dislocation wall/cell structure to non-equilibrium nanofragmented one and near two-fold hardenning. The alloy strengthening and/or softening during further natural aging up to 500 hrs were within 10-15% and controlled by simultaneous decomposition of the aluminum solid solution and recovery of its deformation structure.

Effect of HPT straining and further natural aging on the structure and hardness of aluminum alloy 1965 with nanosized TM aluminides

HPT at 6 GPa pressure in the range of 0-10 rotations of pre-quenched ingot of the commercial aluminum alloy 1965 resulted in consequential transformation of well-defined dense dislocation wall/cell structure to non-equilibrium nanofragmented one and near two-fold hardenning. The alloy strengthening and/or softening during further natural aging up to 500 hrs were within 10-15% and controlled by simultaneous decomposition of the aluminum solid solution and recovery of its deformation structure.
M.V. Markushev, E.V. Avtokratova, S.V. Krymskiy, V.V. Tereshkin, O.S. Sitdikov
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 4s Pages: 463-468
Journal section: Structure design and analysis



Low-heat input friction stir welding/processing of Cu-Cr-Zr alloy produces an ultrafine-grained structure reinforced with Cr and Cu5Zr nanoparticles, resulting in a hardness level of 150-190 HV1.

Realizing ultrafine grain structure of Cu-Cr-Zr alloy via friction stir welding / processing

Low-heat input friction stir welding/processing of Cu-Cr-Zr alloy produces an ultrafine-grained structure reinforced with Cr and Cu5Zr nanoparticles, resulting in a hardness level of 150-190 HV1.
N.V. Lezhnin, A.V. Makarov, E.G. Volkova, A.I. Valiullin, A.B. Kotelnikov, A.A. Vopneruk
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 4s Pages: 428-432
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

A ceramic material based on rare-earth zirconates with a pyrochloric structure, possessing phase and structural stability at 1300 °C was obtained. The use of REE oxide concentrate is promising for TBCs with thermal stability above 1200°C.

Effect of rare-earths (La, Nd, Pr) on zirconate ceramics for thermal barrier coatings

A ceramic material based on rare-earth zirconates with a pyrochloric structure, possessing phase and structural stability at 1300 °C was obtained. The use of REE oxide concentrate is promising for TBCs with thermal stability above 1200°C.
S.A. Oglezneva, S.E. Porozova, M.N. Kachenyuk, A.A. Smetkin, V.B. Kul’met’eva
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 4 Pages: 379-384
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

A cubic perovskite of complex composition Pb1/3Na1/3K1/3Ta2/3Fe1/3O3-δ (sp. gr. Pm-3m, a = 3.9767(3) Å) was synthesized for the first time by the solid-phase reaction method.

Optical and electrical properties of a new complex oxide Pb1 / 3Na1 / 3K1 / 3Ta2 / 3Fe1 / 3O3-δ with perovskite structure

A cubic perovskite of complex composition Pb1/3Na1/3K1/3Ta2/3Fe1/3O3-δ (sp. gr. Pm-3m, a = 3.9767(3) Å) was synthesized for the first time by the solid-phase reaction method.
N.A. Zhuk, A.M. Popov, R.I. Korolev, V.V. Moroz, A.A. Selyutin, A.V. Koroleva, N.A. Sekushin, B.A. Makeev
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 4 Pages: 367-372
Journal section: Structure design and analysis


The features and fracture mechanisms of reactor low-activation ferritic-martensitic steel EK-181 after high-temperature thermomechanical treatment and traditional heat treatment are revealed depending on the impact test temperature in the range from -186 to 100°C. The fracture appearance transition temperature is determined by a fractographic investigation.

Fracture features of impact samples of low-activation ferritic-martensitic steel EK-181 after high-temperature thermomechanical treatment

The features and fracture mechanisms of reactor low-activation ferritic-martensitic steel EK-181 after high-temperature thermomechanical treatment and traditional heat treatment are revealed depending on the impact test temperature in the range from -186 to 100°C. The fracture appearance transition temperature is determined by a fractographic investigation.
N.A. Polekhina, V.V. Linnik, I.Y. Litovchenko, K.V. Almaeva, V.M. Chernov, M.V. Leontieva-Smirnova
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 4s Pages: 451-456
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

The influence of warm plastic deformation by rolling at 600 and 900 °C with a total strain of e = 2 on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the reactor austenitic steel EK-164 has been studied. The resulting fragmented banded microstructure with a well-developed substructure and fine grains provides high strength properties.

Microstructure and mechanical properties of austenitic steel EK-164 after warm rolling

The influence of warm plastic deformation by rolling at 600 and 900 °C with a total strain of e = 2 on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the reactor austenitic steel EK-164 has been studied. The resulting fragmented banded microstructure with a well-developed substructure and fine grains provides high strength properties.
S.A. Akkuzin, I.Y. Litovchenko, A.V. Kim, E.N. Moskvichev, V.M. Chernov
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 4s Pages: 394-398
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

A new low-activation chromium-manganese austenitic steel for nuclear power engineering with an increased manganese content and additional alloying with strong carbide formers has been fabricated. The new steel has improved strength and ductility properties compared to known analogues.

New low-activation austenitic steel for nuclear power engineering

A new low-activation chromium-manganese austenitic steel for nuclear power engineering with an increased manganese content and additional alloying with strong carbide formers has been fabricated. The new steel has improved strength and ductility properties compared to known analogues.
I.Y. Litovchenko, S.A. Akkuzin, N.A. Polekhina, K.V. Almaeva, E.N. Moskvichev, A.V. Kim, V.V. Linnik, V.M. Chernov
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 4s Pages: 399-403
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

The single-step (low-temperature) homogenization of the Al alloy 1570C, recommended by the alloy developers, did not lead to the complete removal of chemical heterogeneity arising during crystallization. An additional high-temperature annealing step resulted in some reduction in the alloy strength, but was effective in eliminating the chemical heterogeneity of the cast structure and increasing corrosion resistance while maintaining the grain size and dispersity and coherency of the nanosized Al3(Sc,Zr) dispersoids present in the alloy.

Effect of homogenization on the structure, hardness and corrosion resistance of 1570C alloy

The single-step (low-temperature) homogenization of the Al alloy 1570C, recommended by the alloy developers, did not lead to the complete removal of chemical heterogeneity arising during crystallization. An additional high-temperature annealing step resulted in some reduction in the alloy strength, but was effective in eliminating the chemical heterogeneity of the cast structure and increasing corrosion resistance while maintaining the grain size and dispersity and coherency of the nanosized Al3(Sc,Zr) dispersoids present in the alloy.
E.V. Avtokratova, O.S. Sitdikov, R.R. Zagitov, M.V. Markushev
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 4s Pages: 388-393
Journal section: Structure design and analysis


We observed the ordered phase particle experimentally by the TEM method. The temperature of the order–disorder phase transition in the Cu-5.9Pd alloy was estimated as Tc ≈ 340°С.

Signs of the presence of an ordered phase in the Cu-5.9 at.% Pd alloy after its long-term annealing at a moderate temperature

We observed the ordered phase particle experimentally by the TEM method. The temperature of the order–disorder phase transition in the Cu-5.9Pd alloy was estimated as Tc ≈ 340°С.
O.S. Novikova, A.E. Kostina, E.G. Volkova, Y.A. Salamatov, A.V. Glukhov, A.Y. Volkov, V.V. Marchenkov, V.S. Gaviko, Y.M. Ustyugov
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Year: 2023 Volume: 13     Issue: 1 Pages: 3-8
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

Thermal conductivity of diamond materials in transition from monocrystals to nanostructured nanodiamond composites declines two orders down due to the change in dominating factor that contributes to the thermal resistance – phonon scattering upon inner defects is changed by domination of phonon scattering at boundaries.

Heat-conducting properties of thermobarically-sintered detonation nanodiamond

Thermal conductivity of diamond materials in transition from monocrystals to nanostructured nanodiamond composites declines two orders down due to the change in dominating factor that contributes to the thermal resistance – phonon scattering upon inner defects is changed by domination of phonon scattering at boundaries.
V.A. Plotnikov, D.G. Bogdanov, A.S. Bogdanov, A.A. Chepurov, S.V. Makarov, A.P. Yelisseyev, E.I. Zhimulev, V.G. Vins
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 4 Pages: 350-353
Journal section: Structure design and analysis



SEM images of the graphene nanofilm in the matrix of AlMgGr composite and after it dissolution in 20% HCl. Raman spectrums of the graphene nanofilms in AlMgGr composite and the graphene films obtained after dissolution of the composite in 20% HCl.

Structure formation and physical-mechanical properties of Al-Mg alloy with microadditions of graphene

SEM images of the graphene nanofilm in the matrix of AlMgGr composite and after it dissolution in 20% HCl. Raman spectrums of the graphene nanofilms in AlMgGr composite and the graphene films obtained after dissolution of the composite in 20% HCl.
I.G. Brodova, L.A. Yolshina, D.Y. Rasposienko, R.V. Muradymov, I.G. Shirinkina, S.V. Razorenov, A.N. Petrova, E.V. Shorokhov
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 4 Pages: 269-275
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

Friction stir processing mode (ω = 2000 rpm, ν = 8 mm/min) and hardening T6 heat treatment were developed, which makes it possible to achieve the formation of a monolithic defect-free structure in the AK12D (Al–12.8Si–1.67Cu–1.03Ni–0.84Mg–0.33Mn–0.23Co–0.24Fe) alloy with a high level of mechanical properties.

Surface hardening of an Al-Si-Cu-Ni-Mg aluminum alloy by friction stir processing and T6 heat treatment

Friction stir processing mode (ω = 2000 rpm, ν = 8 mm/min) and hardening T6 heat treatment were developed, which makes it possible to achieve the formation of a monolithic defect-free structure in the AK12D (Al–12.8Si–1.67Cu–1.03Ni–0.84Mg–0.33Mn–0.23Co–0.24Fe) alloy with a high level of mechanical properties.
G.R. Khalikova, G.R. Zakirova, A.I. Farkhutdinov, E.A. Korznikova, V.G. Trifonov
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 3 Pages: 255-260
Journal section: Structure design and analysis


The mechanism of formation of the cellular crystallization structure consists in the occurrence of combined thermocapillary,
concentration-capillary, evaporative-capillary and thermoelectric instability

Modeling the mechanism of micro / nanostructured surface formation in Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Ni and Co-Cr-Fe-Mn-Ni high-entropy alloys treated with a high current pulsed electron beam

The mechanism of formation of the cellular crystallization structure consists in the occurrence of combined thermocapillary, concentration-capillary, evaporative-capillary and thermoelectric instability
S.A. Nevskii, V.D. Sarychev, S.V. Konovalov, K.A. Osintsev, Y.F. Ivanov, I.A. Panchenko, V.E. Gromov
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 3 Pages: 249-254
Journal section: Structure design and analysis

The energy dispersive analysis showed an increase in the chromium concentration in the coating with an increase in the chromium oxide content in the electrode materials. With an increase in the concentration of Cr2O3 in the coatings, the friction coefficient and wear rate were decreased.

Formation of electric spark WC-Co coatings with modifying Cr2O3 additives

The energy dispersive analysis showed an increase in the chromium concentration in the coating with an increase in the chromium oxide content in the electrode materials. With an increase in the concentration of Cr2O3 in the coatings, the friction coefficient and wear rate were decreased.
A.A. Burkov, L.A. Konevtsov, V.K. Khe
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 3 Pages: 237-242
Journal section: Structure design and analysis


The structure of a sample obtained by consolidation of four sheets of CP Ti was examined. It was shown that the quality of bonding between the sheets decreases from the bottom to the top and the formation of a joint of satisfactory quality was accompanied by a change in the microtexture, weak grain growth and the formation of a subgrain structure.

Microstructure of a titanium sample produced by ultrasonic consolidation

The structure of a sample obtained by consolidation of four sheets of CP Ti was examined. It was shown that the quality of bonding between the sheets decreases from the bottom to the top and the formation of a joint of satisfactory quality was accompanied by a change in the microtexture, weak grain growth and the formation of a subgrain structure.
A.A. Mukhametgalina, M.A. Murzinova, A.A. Nazarov
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 2 Pages: 153-157
Journal section: Structure design and analysis



CrxAl(Si)yC with a thickness of 3800 nm was deposited by PVD technique
Al is chemical bonded with silicon, Si – with carbon and aluminum.
Melting and crystallization of Al-Si system reduce the coating protective properties

Structure and corrosion behaviour of CrxAl(Si)yC coatings fabricated by the vacuum arc discharge technique

CrxAl(Si)yC with a thickness of 3800 nm was deposited by PVD technique Al is chemical bonded with silicon, Si – with carbon and aluminum. Melting and crystallization of Al-Si system reduce the coating protective properties
A.P. Rubshtein, A.B. Vladimirov, S.A. Plotnikov, V.B. Vykhodets, T.E. Kurennykh
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 2 Pages: 121-125
Journal section: Structure design and analysis



(a) Scheme of an arbitrary pole of the sample surface (the edge of every round disc is made up of atoms at the step edges and atoms at the edge): A, C – atoms in the step edge; B – atom in the center of the plane (half of atoms bonds are broken); D – separately placed atom at the edge of the plane (has one non broken bond). 
(b) Field ion image of the disordered state of the alloy Fe25Pd50Au25. The statistical arrangement of atoms in the crystal lattice shows a chaotic contrast of the surface image.
(c) Field ion image of the ordered state of Fe25Pd50Au25 alloy. Fe and Au atoms provide contrast in the field ion image, Pd atoms do not provide contrast.

A study of the distribution of Au atoms in the LI2 superstructure of the Fe25Pd50Au25 alloy using field ion microscopy

(a) Scheme of an arbitrary pole of the sample surface (the edge of every round disc is made up of atoms at the step edges and atoms at the edge): A, C – atoms in the step edge; B – atom in the center of the plane (half of atoms bonds are broken); D – separately placed atom at the edge of the plane (has one non broken bond). (b) Field ion image of the disordered state of the alloy Fe25Pd50Au25. The statistical arrangement of atoms in the crystal lattice shows a chaotic contrast of the surface image. (c) Field ion image of the ordered state of Fe25Pd50Au25 alloy. Fe and Au atoms provide contrast in the field ion image, Pd atoms do not provide contrast.
V.A. Ivchenko
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 2 Pages: 100-105
Journal section: Structure design and analysis




LPBF of multiple sieved powder of Co-28 wt.% Cr-6 wt.% Mo leads to the formation of samples with inclusions of Cr and Mo within the bulk.
Increasing the duration of annealing post-treatment leads to the initiation of diffusion processes, which, in its turn, leads to the gradual dissolution of Cr and Mo inclusiuons

Influence of thermal treatment duration on structure and phase composition of additive Co-Cr-Mo alloy samples

LPBF of multiple sieved powder of Co-28 wt.% Cr-6 wt.% Mo leads to the formation of samples with inclusions of Cr and Mo within the bulk. Increasing the duration of annealing post-treatment leads to the initiation of diffusion processes, which, in its turn, leads to the gradual dissolution of Cr and Mo inclusiuons
M.A. Khimich, E.A. Ibragimov, A.I. Tolmachev, V.V. Chebodaeva, P.V. Uvarkin, N.A. Saprykina, A.A. Saprykin, Y.P. Sharkeev
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Year: 2022 Volume: 12     Issue: 1 Pages: 43-48
Journal section: Structure design and analysis
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